Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD
Practice guidelines have identified the treatments that have the most evidence for treating PTSD. The best treatments include different talk therapies (or psychotherapy) and medications. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is one of these treatments.
What Type of Treatment Is This?
EMDR is a psychotherapy for PTSD. EMDR can help you process upsetting memories, thoughts, and feelings related to the trauma. By processing these experiences, you can get relief from PTSD symptoms.
How Does It Work?
After trauma, people with PTSD often have trouble making sense of what happened to them. EMDR helps you process the trauma, which can allow you to start to heal. In EMDR, you will pay attention to a back-and-forth movement or sound while you think about the upsetting memory long enough for it to become less distressing. Although EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD, there is disagreement about it works. Some research shows that the back and forth movement is an important part of treatment, but other research shows the opposite.
What Will I Do?
During the first stage, you will learn about physical and emotional reactions to trauma. You and your provider will discuss how ready you are to focus on your trauma memories in therapy. To prepare, you will learn some new coping skills. Next, you will identify the “target”, or the upsetting memory you want to focus on–including any negative thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations related to the memory.
You will hold the memory in your mind while also paying attention to a back-and-forth movement or sound (like your provider’s moving finger, a flashing light, or a tone that beeps in one ear at a time) until your distress goes down. This will last for about 30 seconds at a time, and then you will talk about what the exercise was like for you. Eventually, you will focus on a positive belief and sensation while you hold the memory in your mind. Towards the end of treatment, your provider will re-assess your symptoms to see if you need to process other targets.
What Are the Risks?
You may feel uncomfortable when focusing on trauma-related memories or beliefs. These feelings are usually brief and people tend to feel better as they keep doing EMDR. Most people who complete EMDR find that the benefits outweigh any initial discomfort.
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Group or Individual?
EMDR is an individual therapy. You will meet one-to-one with your provider for each session.
Will I Talk in Detail about My Trauma?
No, in most cases you will not be asked to talk about the details of your trauma out loud. But you will be asked to think about your trauma in session.
Will I Have Homework?
No, EMDR does not require you to complete homework or practice assignments between sessions.
How Long Does Treatment Last?
About 1-3 months of weekly 50-90 minute sessions. But, many people start to notice improvement after a few sessions. And the benefits of EMDR can last long after your final session with your provider.
This is an article from the public library for public knowledge. More information can be found at EMDR for PTSD